快乐牛牛

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                        1. 生态中国网 >  佛教文化 >  正文

                          《中国哲学简史》第二十一章 中国佛学的建立

                          来源:爱思想 时间:2019/11/4 16:06:19快乐牛牛

                          字号

                          快乐牛牛● FENGYOULAN 

                             

                             

                             FOJIAOCHUANRUZHONGGUO,SHIZHONGGUOLISHIZHONGZUIZHONGDADESHIJIANZHIYI。CONGTACHUANRUYIHOU,TAJIUSHIZHONGGUOWENHUADEZHONGYAOYINSU,ZAIZONGJIAO、ZHEXUE、WENXUE、YISHUFANGMIANYOUQITESHUYINGXIANG。

                             

                             佛教的传入及其在中国的发展

                             FOJIAOCHUANRUDEQUEQIENIANDAISHIYIGEYOUZHENGLUNDEWENTI,LISHIJIAMENRENGWEIJIEJUE,DAGAISHIFASHENGZAIGONGYUANYISHIJISHANGBANYE。CHUANTONGDESHUOFASHIZAIDONGHANMINGDI(58-75NIANZAIWEI)SHI,DANSHIXIANZAIYOUZHENGJUSHUOMINGZAIMINGDIYIQIANZAIZHONGGUOYIJINGTINGSHUOYOUFOJIAOLE。ERHOUFOJIAODECHUANBOSHIYIGEMANZHANGERZHUBUDEGUOCHENG。CONGZHONGGUODEWENXIANZILIAOKAN,ZAIGONGYUANYI、ERSHIJI,FOJIAOBEIRENRENWEISHIYOUSHENMIFASHUDEZONGJIAO,YUYINYANGJIADEHEHOULAIDAOJIAODESHENMIFASHUMEIYOUDUODABUTONG。

                             ZAIERSHIJI,YOUYIGESHUOFASHI,FOBUGUOSHILAOZIDIZIERYI,ZHEIGESHUOFAZAIYIDINGFANWEINEICHUANKAILE。ZHEIGESHUOFASHISHOUDAO《SHIJI·LAOZILIECHUAN》DEQIFA,QIZHONGSHUOLAOZIWANNIANCHUGUAN,"MOZHIQISUOZHONG"。DAOJIAZHONGDEREXINRENJIUZHEIJUHUADAJIAFAHUI,CHUANGZUOLEYIGEGUSHI,SHUOLAOZIQUDAOXIFANG,DAODAYINDU,JIAOLEFOHEQITAYINDUREN,ZONGGONGYOUERSHIJIUGEDIZI。ZHEIGESHUOFADEHANYISHI,FOJINGDEJIAOYIBUGUOSHI《DAODEJING》JI《LAOZI》DEWAIGUOBIANZHONGBALE。

                             ZAISAN、SISHIJI,BIJIAOYOUXINGSHANGXUEYIYIDEFOJING,FANYIDEGENGDUOLE,DUIFOXUEDELEJIEYEJINLEYIBU。ZHEISHIHOURENWEI,FOXUEHENXIANGDAOJIAZHEXUE,YOUQISHIZHUANGZIZHEXUE,ERBUXIANGDAOJIAO。FOXUEZHUZUOWANGWANGBEIRENYONGDAOJIAZHEXUEDEGUANNIANJINXINGJIESHI。ZHEIZHONGFANGFAJIAOZUO"GEYI",JIUSHIYONGLEIBILAIJIESHI。

                          快乐牛牛   ZHEIYANGDEFANGFA,DANGRANBUHUIZHUNQUE,RONGYIZAOCHENGQUJIE。YUSHIZAIWUSHIJI,ZHEISHIHOUFANYIDEFOJINGDALIANGDIXUNSUDIZENGJIALE,ZHEICAIJIANJUEBUYONGLEIBIJIESHILE。KESHIRENGRANCUNZAIZHEIYANGDEQINGKUANG,JIUSHIWUSHIJIDEFOXUEDASHI,SHENZHIBAOPIKUOYINDULAIDEJIUMOLUOSHENZAINEI,JIXUSHIYONGDAOJIADESHUYU,ZHURU"YOU"、"WU"、"YOUWEI"、"WUWEI",LAIBIAODAFOXUEDEGUANNIAN。ZHEIYANGZUOYULEIBIJIESHIBUTONG,HOUZHEZHISHIYUCIDEBIAOMIANXIANGSI,QIANZHEZESUOYONGYUCIYUQIBIAODADEGUANNIANYOUNEIZAILIANXI。SUOYICONGZHEIXIEZHUZUODENEIRONGLAIPANDUAN,ZUOZHEMENJIXUSHIYONGDAOJIASHUYU,BINGMEIYOUZAOCHENGDUIFOXUEDEWUJIEHUOQUJIE,DAOSHIZAOCHENGYINDUFOXUEYUDAOJIAZHEXUEDEZONGHE,DAOZHIZHONGGUOXINGSHIDEFOXUEDEJIANLI。

                          快乐牛牛   ZHEILIBIXUZHICHU:"ZHONGGUODEFOXUE"YU"ZAIZHONGGUODEFOXUE",ERZHESUOZHIDEBUYIDINGSHIYIHUISHI,JIBUYIDINGSHITONGYIYU。YINWEIFOJIAOZHONGYOUXIEZONGPAI,GUIDINGZIJIZHIZUNSHOUYINDUDEZONGJIAOHEZHEXUECHUANTONG,ERYUZHONGGUODEBUFASHENGJIECHU。XIANGZONG,YOUCHENGWEISHIZONG,JIUSHIYIGELIZI。XIANGZONGSHIZHUMINGDEDAOYINDUQUJINGDEXUANZHUANG(596-664NIAN)YINJINZHONGGUODE。XIANGXIANGZONGZHEIYANGDEZONGPAI,DOUZHINENGJIAOZUO"ZAIZHONGGUODEFOXUE"。TAMENDEYINGXIANG,ZHIXIANYUSHAOSHURENHEDUANZANDESHIQI。TAMENBINGMEIYOUJINRUGUANGDAZHISHIJIEDESIXIANGZHONG,SUOYIZAIZHONGGUODEJINGSHENDEFAZHANZHONG,JIANZHIMEIYOUQIZUOYONG。

                             "ZHONGGUODEFOXUE"ZEBURAN,TASHILINGYIZHONGXINGSHIDEFOXUE,TAYIJINGYUZHONGGUODESIXIANGJIEHE,TASHILIANXIZHEZHONGGUODEZHEXUECHUANTONGFAZHANQILAIDE。WANGHOUWOMENJIANGHUIKANDAO,FOJIAODEZHONGDAOZONGYUDAOJIAZHEXUEYOUMOUXIEXIANGSIZHICHU。ZHONGDAOZONGYUDAOJIAZHEXUEXIANGHUZUOYONG,CHANSHENGLESHANZONG。SHANZONGSUISHIFOJIAO,TONGSHIYOUSHIZHONGGUODE。SHANZONGSUISHIFOJIAODEYIGEZONGPAI,KESHITADUIYUZHONGGUOZHEXUE、WENXUE、YISHUDEYINGXIANG,QUESHISHENYUANDE。

                             

                             佛学的一般概念

                          快乐牛牛   SUIZHEFOJIAODECHUANRUZHONGGUO,YOUXIERENWEIFOJINGDEHANYIZUOLEJUDADENULI。XIAOCHENG、DACHENGDEJINGWENDOUFANYIGUOLAILE,DANSHIZHIYOUDACHENGZAIZHONGGUODEFOXUEZHONGHUODEYONGJIUDEDIWEI。

                          快乐牛牛   ZONGDISHUOLAI,DACHENGFOXUEDUIZHONGGUORENYINGXIANGZUIDAZHESHITADEYUZHOUDEXINDEGAINIAN,YIJIKEYICHENGWEITADEXINGSHANGXUEDEFUDEFANGFA。DUIZHEIXIEJINXINGTAOLUNZHIQIAN,BIXUSHOUXIANKAOCHAYIXIAFOXUEDEJIGEYIBANGAINIAN。

                          快乐牛牛   SUISHUOFOJIAOYOUXUDUOZONGPAI,MEIGEZONGPAIDOUTICHULEMOUXIEBUTONGDEDONGXI,KESHISUOYOUDEZONGPAIYIZHITONGYI,TAMENDOUXIANGXIN"YE"DEXUESHUO。YE,TONGCHANGJIESHIWEIXINGWEI,DONGZUO。DANSHIYEDESHIJIHANYIGENGGUANG,BUZHIXIANYUWAIBUDEXINGDONG,ERQIEBAOPIKUOYIGEYOUQINGWUSHUODEHEXIANGDE。ZHAOFOXUEDESHUOFA,YUZHOUDEYIQIEXIANXIANG,HUOZHEGENGQUEQIEDISHUO,YIGEYOUQINGWUDEYUZHOUDEYIQIEXIANXIANG,DOUSHITADEXINDEBIAOXIAN。BULUNHESHI,TADONG,TASHUO,YIZHIYUTAXIANG,ZHEIDOUSHITADEXINZUOLEDIANSHENME,ZHEIDIANSHENMEYIDINGCHANSHENGTADEJIEGUO,WULUNZAIDUOMEYAOYUANDEJIANGLAI。ZHEIGEJIEGUOJIUSHIYEDEBAOYING。YESHIYIN,BAOSHIGUO。YIGERENDECUNZAI,JIUSHIYILIANCHUANDEYINGUOZAOCHENGDE。

                             YIGEYOUQINGWUDEJINSHENG,JINZHISHIZHEIGEQUANGUOCHENGDEYIGEFANGMIAN。SIBUSHITADECUNZAIDEZHONGJIE,ERZHISHIZHEIGEGUOCHENGDELINGYIGEFANGMIAN。JINSHENGSHISHENME,LAIZIQIANSHENGDEYE;JINSHENGDEYE,JUEDINGLAISHENGSHISHENME。RUCI,JINSHENGDEYE,BAOZAILAISHENG;LAISHENGDEYE,BAOZAILAISHENGDELAISHENG;YIZHIWUQIONG。ZHEIYILIANCHUANDEYINGUOBAOYING,JIUSHI"SHENGSILUNHUI"。TASHIYIQIEYOUQINGWUDETONGKUDEZHUYAOLAIYUAN。

                             ZHAOFOXUEDESHUOFA,ZHEIYIQIETONGKU,DOUQIYUGERENDUISHIWUBENXINGDEGENBENWUZHI。YUZHOUDEYIQIESHIWUDOUSHIXINDEBIAOXIAN,SUOYISHIXUHUANDE,ZANSHIDE,KESHIWUZHIDEGERENHAISHIKEQIUTAMEN,MILIANTAMEN。ZHEIZHONGGENBENWUZHI,JIUSHI"WUMING"。WUMINGSHENGTANCHENCHILIAN;YOUYUDUIYUSHENGDETANLIAN,GERENJIUXIANRUYONGHENGDESHENGSILUNHUI,WANJIEBUFU。

                             YAOTAOTUOSHENGSILUNHUI,WEIYIDEXIWANGZAIYUJIANG"WUMING"HUANCHENGJUEWU,JUEWUJIUSHIFANYUDE"PUTI"。FOJIAOYIQIEBUTONGDEZONGPAIDEJIAOYIHEXIUXING,DOUSHISHITUDUIPUTIYOUSUOGONGXIAN。CONGZHEIXIEDUIPUTIDEGONGXIANZHONG,GERENKEYIZAIDUOCIZAISHENGDEGUOCHENGZHONG,JILEIBUZAITANLIANSHENMEERNENGBIKAITANLIANDEYE。GERENYOULEZHEIYANGDEYE,QIJIEGUOJIUSHICONGSHENGSILUNHUIZHONGJIETUOCHULAI,ZHEIZHONGJIETUOJIAOZUO"NIEPAN"。

                          快乐牛牛   NEIME,NIEPANZHUANGTAIDEQUEQIEYIYISHISHENMENI?TAKEYISHUOSHIGERENYUYUZHOUDEXINDETONGYI,HUOZHESHUOYUSUOWEIDEFOXINGDETONGYI;HUOZHESHUO,TAJIUSHILEJIELEHUOZIJUEDAOGERENYUYUZHOUDEXINDEGUYOUDETONGYI。TASHIYUZHOUDEXIN,KESHIYIQIANTAMEIYOULEJIEHUOZIJUEZHEIYIDIAN。FOJIAODEDACHENGZONGPAI,ZHONGGUORENCHENGZUOXINGZONGDE,CHANFALEZHEIGEXUESHUO。(ZAIXINGZONGZHONG,XINGHEXINSHIYIHUISHI。)ZAICHANFAZHIZHONG,XINGZONGJIANGYUZHOUDEXINDEGUANNIANYINRULEZHONGGUOSIXIANG。SUOYIXINGZONGKEYIWEISchoolofUniversalMind("YUZHOUDEXIN"ZONG)。

                             FOJIAODACHENGDEQITAZONGPAI,RUZHONGGUORENCHENGWEIKONGZONG,YOUCHENGWEIZHONGDAOZONGDE,QUEBUSHIZHEIYANGMIAOSHUNIEPANDE。TAMENDEMIAOSHUFANGFA,WOCHENGZHIWEIFUDEFANGFA。

                             

                             二谛义

                             ZHONGDAOZONGTICHUSUOWEI"ERDIYI",JIERZHONGDAOLIDEXUESHUO:RENWEIYOUPUTONGYIYIDEDAOLI,JI"SUDI";YOUGAOJIYIYIDEDAOLI,JI"ZHENDI"。TAJINYIBURENWEI,BUJINYOUZHEILIANGZHONGDAOLI,ERQIEDOUCUNZAIYUBUTONGDECENGCISHANG。YUSHIDIYICENGCIDEZHENDI,ZAIGAOYICENGCIJIUZHISHISUDI。CIZONGDEDASHIJIZANG(549-623NIAN),MIAOSHUCISHUOYOURUXIASANGECENGCIDE"ERDI":

                             (!”)PUTONGRENYIWANWUWEISHI"YOU",ERBUZHI"WU"。ZHUFOGAOSUTAMEN,WANWUSHIJISHANGDOUSHI"WU","KONG"。ZAIZHEIGECENGCISHANG,SHUOWANWUSHI"YOU",ZHEISHISUDI;SHUOWANWUSHI"WU",ZHEISHIZHENDI。

                             (2)SHUOWANWUSHI"YOU",ZHEISHIPIANMIANDE;DANSHISHUOWANWUSHI"WU",YESHIPIANMIANDE。TAMENDOUSHIPIANMIANDE,YINWEITAMENJIRENMENYIGECUOWUYINXIANG:"WU"ZHISHIMEIYOULE"YOU"DEJIEGUO。SHUBUZHISHISHISHANGSHI,"YOU"TONGSHIJIUSHI"WU"。LIRU,WOMENMIANQIANDEZHUOZI,YAOBIAOMINGTAZHENGZAITINGZHICUNZAI,BINGBUXUYAOHUIDIAOTA。SHISHISHANG,TAWUSHIWUKEBUSHIZHENGZAITINGZHIQICUNZAI。QIYUANYINZAIYU,NIKAISHIHUIZHUOZI,NISUOXIANGHUIDEZHUOZIYIJINGTINGZHICUNZAILE。CIYIKEDEZHUOZIBUZAISHIQIANYIKEDEZHUOZILE。ZHUOZIZHISHIKANZHEHAOXIANGQIANYIKEDEZHUOZI。YINCIZAIERDIDEDIERCENGCISHANG,SHUOWANWUSHI"YOU"YUSHUOWANWUSHI"WU",DOUTONGYANGSHISUDI。WOMENZHIYINGDANGSHUO,BUPIANMIANDEZHONGDAO,ZAIYULIJIEWANWUFEIYOUFEIWU。ZHEISHIZHENDI。

                          快乐牛牛   (3)DANSHI,SHUO"ZHONGDAO"ZAIYUBUPIANMIAN(JIFEIYOUFEIWU),YIMEIZHEJINXINGQUBIE。ERYIQIEQUBIEDEBENSHENJIUSHIPIANMIANDE。YINCIZAIDISANCENGCISHANG,SHUOWANWUFEIYOUFEIWU,SHUO"BUPIANMIANDEZHONGDAO"JIZAIYUCI,ZHEIXIESHUOFAYOUZHISHISUDILE。ZHENDIJIUZAIYUSHUO:WANWUFEIYOUFEIWU,ERYOUFEIFEIYOUFEIFEIWU;ZHONGDAOBUPIANMIAN,ERYOUFEIBUPIANMIAN(SHUOJIAN《ERDIZHANG》JUANSHANG,ZAI《DAZANGJING》JUANSISHIWU)。

                          快乐牛牛   YOUYISHANGSUOYONGDE"YOU""WU"ERZI,DANGSHIDESIXIANGJIAKEYIKANCHUHUOZHEGANDAO,FOXUETAOLUNDEZHONGXINWENTI,YUDAOJIATAOLUNDEZHONGXINWENTI,YOUXIANGSIZHICHU,DOUSHITUCHU"YOU,WU"ERZI。DANGRAN,YISHENRUFENXI,JIUZHIDAOZHEIZHONGXIANGSI,ZAIMOUXIEFANGMIANSHIBIAOMIANDEXIANGSI;KESHI,ZAIDAOJIAJIANG"WU"SHUOCHENG"CHAOHUXINGXIANG",FOJIAJIANG"WU"SHUOCHENG"FEIFEI"DESHIHOU,QUESHIZHENZHENGDEXIANGSI。

                             HAIYOUYIGEZHENZHENGXIANGSIZHICHU:FOJIAOCIZONGYUDAOJIASUOYONGDEFANGFA,YIJIYONGZHEIZHONGFANGFASUODEDEJIEGUO,DOUSHIXIANGSIDE。ZHEIZHONGFANGFASHI,LIYONGBUTONGDECENGCI,JINXINGTAOLUN。YIGECENGCISHANGDESHUOFA,MASHANGBEIGAOYICENGCISHANGDESHUOFAFOUDINGLE。WOMENZAIDISHIZHANGYIJINGKANDAO,《ZHUANGZI·QIWULUN》SUOYONGDEYESHIZHEIZHONGFANGFA,TAJIUSHIYISHANGGANGCAITAOLUNDEFANGFA。

                          快乐牛牛   YIQIEDOUFOUDINGLE,BAOPIKUOFOUDINGZHEIGE"FOUDINGYIQIE",JIUKEYIDADAOZHUANGZIZHEXUEZHONGXIANGTONGDEJINGJIE,JIUSHIWANGLEYIQIE,LIANZHEIGE"WANGLEYIQIE"YEWANGLE。ZHEIZHONGZHUANGTAI,ZHUANGZICHENGZHIWEI"ZUOWANG",FOJIACHENGZHIWEI"NIEPAN"。WOMENBUKEYIWENFOJIAOCIZONG,NIEPANZHUANGTAIQUEQIEDISHISHENME,YINWEI,ZHAOTASHUODE,DADAODISANCENGCIDEZHENDI,JIUSHENMEYEBUNENGSHUOLE。

                             

                             僧肇的哲学

                             GONGYUANWUSHIJI,ZAIZHONGGUODEFOJIAOCIZONGDASHIZHIYISHIJIUMOLUOSHEN。TASHIYINDUREN,CHUSHENGDEGUOJIAZEZAIJINXINJIANGSHENGNEI。TAYU401NIANDAOZHANGAN(JINSHANXISHENGXIAN),ZAICIDINGJU,ZHIDAO413NIANSHISHI。ZAIZHEISHISANNIANZHONG,TAJIANGXUDUOFOJINGYIWEIHANWEN。JIAOLEXUDUODIZI,QIZHONGYOUXIERENHENCHUMING,HENYOUYINGXIANG。ZHEIYIZHANGZHIJIANGTADELIANGGEDIZI:SENGZHAOHEDAOSHENG。

                             SENGZHAO(384-414NIAN),JINGZHAO(JINXIANFUJIN)REN。TAXIANYANJIULAOZHUANG,HOULAICHENGWEIJIUMOLUOSHENDIZI。TAXIELEJIPIANLUNWEN,HOURENJICHENGYIJI,CHENGWEI《ZHAOLUN》。《ZHAOLUN》DIERLUNSHI《BUZHENKONGLUN》,QIZHONGSHUO:"RANZEWANWUGUOYOUQISUOYIBUYOU,YOUQISUOYIBUWU。YOUQISUOYIBUYOU,GUSUIYOUERFEIYOU;YOUQISUOYIBUWU,GUSUIWUERFEIWU。......SUOYIRANZHE,FUYOURUOZHENYOU,YOUZICHANGYOU,QIDAIYUANERHOUYOUZAI?PIBIZHENWU,WUZICHANGWU,QIDAIYUANERHOUWUYE?RUOYOUBUNENGZIYOU,DAIYUANERHOUYOUZHE,GUZHIYOUFEIZHENYOU。......WANWURUOWU,ZEBUYINGQI,QIZEFEIWU。......YUYANQIYOU,YOUFEIZHENSHENG;YUYANQIWU,SHIXIANGJIXING。XIANGXINGBUJIWU。FEIZHENFEISHIYOU。RANZEBUZHENKONGYI,XIANYUZIYI。"(JIAN《DAZANGJING》JUANSISHIWU)

                             《ZHAOLUN》DEDIYILUNTIWEI《WUBUQIANLUN》,QIZHONGSHUO:"FURENZHISUOWEIDONGZHE,YIXIWUBUZHIJIN,GUYUEDONGERFEIJING。WOZHISUOWEIJINGZHE,YIYIXIWUBUZHIJIN,FANGYUEJINGERFEIDONG。DONGERFEIJING,YIQIBULAI;JINGERFEIDONG,YIQIBUQU。......QIUXIANGWUYUXIANG,YUXIANGWEICHANGWU;ZEXIANGWUYUJIN,YUJINWEICHANGYOU。......SHIWEIXIWUZIZAIXI,BUCONGJINYIZHIXI;JINWUZIZAIJIN,BUCONGXIYIZHIJIN。......GUOBUJUYIN,YINYINERGUO。YINYINERGUO,YINBUXIMIE;GUOBUJUYIN,YINBULAIJIN。BUMIEBULAI,ZEBUQIANZHIZHIMINGYI。"(TONGSHANG)

                          快乐牛牛   YISIJIUSHISHUO,WANWUMEIKEDOUZAIBIANHUA。ZAIRENHETEDINGDESHIKECUNZAIDERENHESHIWU,SHIJISHANGSHIZHEIGESHIKEDEXINSHIWU,YUGUOQUCUNZAIDEZHEIGESHIWU,BUSHITONGYIGESHIWU。《WUBUQIANLUN》ZHONGHAISHUO:"FANZHICHUJIA,BAISHOUERGUI,LINRENJIANZHIYUE:'XIRENSHANGCUNHU?'FANZHIYUE;'WUYOUXIREN,FEIXIRENYE。'"FANZHIMEISHIMEIKECUNZAIZHE。CIKEDEFANZHIBUSHICONGGUOQULAIDEFANZHI;GUOQUDEFANZHI,BUSHICONGXIANZAIHUIDAOGUOQUDEFANZHI。CONGMEIWUMEISHIBIANHUALAIKAN,WOMENSHUOYOUDONGERWUJING;CONGMEIWUCISHISHANGZAILAIKAN,WOMENSHUOYOUJINGERWUDONG。

                          快乐牛牛   SENGZHAODELILUN,JUTIHUALEDIERCENGCIDEERDI。ZAIZHEIGECENGCISHANG,SHUOWANWUSHIYOUSHIJING,SHUOWANWUSHIWUSHIDONG,DOUSHISUDI。SHUOWANWUFEIYOUFEIWU,FEIDONGFEIJING,SHIZHENDI。

                             SENGZHAOHAITICHULELUNZHENG,JUTIHUALEDISANCENGCIJIZUIGAOCENGCIDEERDI。ZHEIXIELUNZHENGJIANYU《ZHAOLUN》DE《BANRUOWUZHILUN》。SENGZHAOBA"BANRUO"MIAOXIECHENGSHENGZHI,KESHITAYOUSHUOSHENGZHISHIJISHANGSHIWUZHI。YINWEIYAOZHIMOUYISHIWU,JIUYAOXUANCHUZHEIGESHIWUDEMOUYIXINGZHI,YICIXINGZHIZUOWEIZHIDEDUIXIANG。DANSHISHENGZHISHIYAOZHI"WU",TA"CHAOHUXINGXIANG",MEIYOUXINGZHI,SUOYI"WU"GENBENBUNENGCHENGWEIZHIDEDUIXIANG。YAOZHI"WU",ZHIYOUYU"WU"TONGYI。ZHEIZHONGYU"WU"TONGYIDEZHUANGTAI,JIUJIAOZUONIEPAN。NIEPANHEBANRUO,SHIYIJIANSHIQINGDELIANGGEFANGMIAN。ZHENGRUNIEPANBUSHIKEZHIZHIWU,BANRUOSHIBUZHIZHIZHI(SHUOJIAN《BANRUOWUZHILUN》,ZAI《DAZANGJING》JUANSISHIWU)。SUOYIZAIDISANCENGCISHANG,SHENMEYEBUNENGSHUO,ZHIYOUBAOCHIJINGMO。

                             

                             道生的哲学

                             SENGZHAOSANSHISUIJIUSILE,FOUZETADEYINGXIANGHUIGENGDA。DAOSHENG(434NIANZU),JULU(JINHEBEISHENGXIBEIBU)REN,YUJUPENGCHENG(ZAIJINJIANGSUSHENGBEIBU),YUSENGZHAOZAIJIUMOLUOSHENMENXIATONGXUE。TAXUESHIYUANBO,YINGWUERXIONGBIAN,JUSHUOJIANGQIFOXUELAI,WANSHIWEIZHIDIANTOU。WANNIANZAILUSHANJIANGXUE,LUSHANSHIDANGSHIFOXUEZHONGXIN,GAOSENGRUDAOAN(385NIANZU)、HUIYUAN(416NIANZU)DOUZAINEILIJIANGGUOXUE。DAOSHENGTICHUXUDUOLILUN,YOUXINYOUGEMING,CENGBEIYIXIEBAOSHOUDEHESHANGGANCHULENANJING。

                          快乐牛牛   DAOSHENGTICHUDELILUNZHONG,YOU"SHANBUSHOUBAO"YI,YUANWENYISHICHUAN。SENG(518NIANZU)BIANDE《HONGMINGJI》,SHOUYOUHUIYUANDE《MINGBAOYINGLUN》,ZHEIPIANLUNWENKENENGDAIBIAODAOSHENGGUANDIANDEMOUXIEFANGMIAN,YINWEITAYEJIANGSHANBUSHOUBAO。QIZONGDESIXIANGSHI,JIANGDAOJIA"WUWEI"、"WUXIN"DEGUANNIANYINGYONGYUXINGSHANGXUE。WUWEIDEYISIBINGBUSHIZHENZHENGWUSUOZUOWEI,ERSHIWUXINERWEI。ZHIYAOZUNXUNWUWEI、WUXINDEYUANZE,DUIYUWUYEJIUWUSUOTANLIANMIZHI。JISHICONGSHIGEZHONGHUODONG,YESHIRUCI。JIRAN"YE"ERSHOUBAO,SHIYOUYUTANLIANHEMIZHI,XIANZAIMEIYOUTANLIANHEMIZHI,DANGRAN"YE"BUSHOUBAOLE(《HONGMINGJI》JUANWU,ZAI《DAZANGJING》JUANWUSHIER)。HUIYUANDEZHEIGELILUN,WULUNYUDAOSHENGYUANYISHIFOUXIANGTONG,YESHIDAOJIALILUNXIANGFOJIAXINGSHANGXUEDEKUOZHAN。DAOJIADE"WUWEI"、"WUXIN"YUANLAIZHIYOUSHEHUILUNLIDEYIYI,JINRULEFOXUEJIUYOUXINGSHANGXUEDEYIYILE,ZHEIYIDIANSHIHENYOUQUDE。YOUCIKANLAI,TAQUESHISHIZHONGGUOFOXUEDEYIGEZHONGYAOFAZHAN,HOULAIDESHANZONGJIUSHIZUNXUNZHEIGEFAZHANERFAZHANDE。

                             DAOSHENGTICHUDELILUNZHONG,HAIYOU"DUNWUCHENGFO"YI,YUANWENYISHICHUAN,XIELINGYUN(433NIANZU)DE《BIANZONGLUN》CHANSHULEDAOSHENGCIYI。DUNWUCHENGFODELILUN,YUJIANXIUCHENGFODELILUNXIANGDUILI。HOUZHERENWEI,ZHIYOUTONGGUOZHUBUJILEIXUEXIHEXIUXING,JITONGGUOJIXUE,CAINENGCHENGFO。DAOSHENG、XIELINGYUNDOUBUFOURENJIXUEDEZHONGYAOXING,DANSHITAMENRENWEI,JIXUEDEGONGFUBULUNDUOMEDA,YEZHISHIYIZHONGZHUNBEIGONGFU,JIXUEDEBENSHENBINGBUZUYISHIRENCHENGFO。CHENGFOSHIYISHUNJIANDEHUODONG,JIUXIANGSHIYUEGUOHONGGOU。YAOMESHIYIYUECHENGGONG,DADAOBIAN,CHANEIZHIJIANWANQUANCHENGFO;YAOMESHIYIYUEERSHIBAI,RENGRANSHIYUANLAIDEFANFUSUZI。QIJIANMEIYOUZHONGJIANDEBUZHOU。

                             "DUNWUCHENGFO"YIDELILUNGENJUSHI,CHENGFOJIUSHIYU"WU"TONGYI,YEKEYISHUOSHIYUYUZHOUDEXINTONGYI。YOUYU"WU""CHAOHUXINGXIANG","WU"ZISHENBUSHIYI"WU",SUOYIWUBUKENENGFENCHENGYIBUFEN、YIBUFEN。YINCIBUKENENGJINTIANXIUDETADEYIBUFEN,MINGTIANXIUDETADELINGYIBUFEN。TONGYI,JIUSHIYUQIQUANTITONGYI。SHAOLERENHEYIDIAN,JIUBUSHITONGYI。

                          快乐牛牛   GUANYUZHEIGEWENTI,XIELINGYUNYUQITARENYOUXUDUOBIANLUN,《BIANZONGLUN》DOUYOUJIZAI。YOUGEHESHANGMINGJIAOSENGWEI,WENDAO:XUEZHERUOYIJINGYU"WU"TONGYI,DANGRANBUZAISHUO"WU"LE,DANSHITARUOYAOXUE"WU",YONG"WU"CHUDIAO"YOU",NEIME,ZHEIYANGXUE"WU"QIBUSHIJIANWUDEGUOCHENGMA?XIELINGYUNHUIDADAO:XUEZHERUORENGZAI"YOU"DEJINGJIEZHONG,TASUOZUODEYIQIEDOUSHIXUE,BUSHIWU。DANGRAN,XUEZHEYAONENGGOUWU,BIXUSHOUXIANZHILIYUXUE。DANSHIWUDEBENSHENYIDINGSHICHAOYUELE"YOU"。

                          快乐牛牛   SENGWEIYOUWEN:XUEZHERUOZHILIYUXUE,XIWANGJIECIYU"WU"TONGYI,TASHIFOUHUIZHUJIANJINBUNI?RUGUOBUZHUJIANJINBU,TAYOUHEBIXUENI?RUGUOSHIZHUJIANJINBU,QIBUJIUSHIJIANWUMA?XIELINGYUNDA:ZHILIYUXUE,ZAIYAZHIXINZHONGDEWUGOUFANGMIAN,HUIYOUJIJIXIAOGUO。ZHEIYANGDEYAZHI,HAOXIANGSHIXIAOMIELEWUGOU,SHIJISHANGBINGMEIYOUXIAOMIE。ZHIYOUYIDANDUNWU,CAINENG"WANZHITONGJIN"。

                             SENGWEIYOUWEN:XUEZHERUOZHILIYUXUE,NENGFOUYU"WU"ZANTONGNI?RUGUONENGGOU,ZANTONGYESHENGYUWANQUANBUTONG,ZHEIQIBUJIUSHIJIANWUMA?XIELINGYUNDA:ZHEIYANGDEZANTONG,ZHISHIJIATONG。ZHENTONGZAIBENXINGSHANGSHIYONGJIUDE。BAZANTONGDANGCHENGZHENTONG,JIUGENBAYAZHIXINZHONGDEWUGOUDANGCHENGXIAOMIEXINZHONGDEWUGOU,SHIYIYANGDEMIUWU。

                             《BIANZONGLUN》FUYOUDAOSHENGDE《DAWANGWEIJUNSHU》,ZHEIFENGXINWANQUANZANCHENGXIELINGYUNDELUNDIAN。《BIANZONGLUN》ZAIZAIDAOXUAN(596-667)BIANDE《GUANGHONGMINGJI》ZHONG(JUANSHIBA、ZAI《DAZANGJING》JUANWUSHIER)。

                          快乐牛牛   DAOSHENGHAIYOUYIGELILUN,ZHUZHANG"YIQIEZHONGSHENG,MOBUSHIFO,YIJIENIEPAN"(《FAHUAJINGSHU》),JIMEIGEYOUGANJUEDESHENGWUDOUYOUFOXING,HUOYUZHOUDEXIN。TADEGUANYUZHEIGEWENTIDELUNWENYESHICHUANLE,TAZHEIFANGMIANDEGUANDIANHAISANJIANYUJIBUFOJINGDEZHUSHULI。CONGZHEIXIEZHUSHUKANLAI,TARENWEIZHONGSHENGDOUYOUFOXING,ZHISHIBURENSHIZIJIYOUFOXING,ZHEIJIUSHI"WUMING"。ZHEIZHONG"WUMING"SHIZHIXIANRUSHENGSILUNHUI。YINCITABIXUSHOUXIANRENSHIDAOTAYOUFOXING,FOXINGSHITABENXINGLIMIANBENYOUDE,RANHOUTONGGUOXUEXIHEXIUXING,ZIJI"JIAN"ZIJIDEFOXING。ZHEIGE"JIAN"BIANSHIDUNWU,YINWEIFOXINGBUKEFEN,TAZHINENGJIANQIQUANTI,HUOSHIHAOWUSUOJIAN。ZHEIYANGDE"JIAN"YEJIUYIWEIZHEYUFOXINGTONGYI,YINWEIFOXINGBUSHIKEYICONGWAIMIANKANJIANDEDONGXI。ZHEIGEYISIJIUSHIDAOSHENGSUOSHUODE"FANMIGUIJI,GUIJIDEBEN"。(《NIEPANJINGJIJIE》JUANYI)DEBENDEZHUANGTAI,JIUSHINIEPANDEZHUANGTAI。

                             DANSHINIEPANBINGBUSHIWAIZAIYU,JIONGYIYUSHENGSILUNHUI,FOXINGYEBUSHIWAIZAIYU,JIONGYIYUXIANXIANGSHIJIE。YIDANDUNWU,HOUZHELIKEJIUSHIQIANZHE。SUOYIDAOSHENGSHUO:"FUDACHENGZHIWU,BENBUJINSHESHENGSI,YUANGENGQIUZHIYE。SIZAISHENGSISHIZHONG,JIYONGQISHIWEIWUYI。"(YUCHUSENGZHAO《WEIMOJINGZHU》JUANQI)FOJIAYONG"DAOBIAN"DEBIYU,BIAOSHIDENIEPANDEYISI。DAOSHENGSHUO:"YANDAOBIAN:RUODAOBIAN,BIANSHIWEIDAO。WEIDAO、FEIWEIDAO,FANGSHIZHENDAO。CIANSHENGSI,BIANNIEPAN。"(TONGSHANG,JUANJIU)TAHAISHUO:"RUOJIANFOZHE,WEIJIANFOYE。BUJIANYOUFO,NAIWEIJIANFOER。"(TONGSHANG)

                          快乐牛牛   ZHEIDAGAIYEJIUSHIDAOSHENGDEFOWU"JINGTU"LUNDEYISI。ZHEISHITADEYOUYIGELILUN。FODESHIJIE,JIUZHENGZAIYANQIANDEZHEIGESHIJIEZHIZHONG。

                             YOUYIPIANLUNWENTIWEI《BAOZANGLUN》,CHUANTONGDESHUOFASHUOSHISENGZHAOSUOZUO,HENKENENGBUSHITAZUODE。QIZHONGSHUO:"PIRUYOUREN,YUJINQIZANGZHONG,CHANGGUANYUJINTI,BUDUZHONGXIANG。SUIDUZHONGXIANG,YISHIYIJIN。JIBUWEIXIANGSUOHUO,JILIFENBIE。CHANGGUANJINTI。WUYOUXUMIU。YUBIZHENREN,YIFURUSHI。"(《DAZANGJING》JUANSISHIWU)YISISHISHUO:JIASHEYOUGERENZAIZHUZANGJINQIDEBAOKUNEI,KANJIANLEJINQI,DANSHIMEIYOUZHUYIJINQIDEXINGZHUANG。HUOZHEJISHIZHUYILEJINQIDEXINGZHUANG,TAHAISHIRENCHULETAMENDOUSHIJINZI。TAMEIYOUBEIGEZHONGBUTONGDEXINGZHUANGSUOMIHUO,SUOYINENGGOUBAITUOTAMENDEBIAOMIANQUBIE。TAZONGSHIKANDECHUTAMENNEIHANDEBENZHISHIJINZI,ERBUWEIRENHEHUANXIANGSUOKU。ZHEIGEBIYUSHUOMINGLEZHENRENSHISHENME。

                             ZHEIGESHUOFA,KENENGBUSHICHUYUSENGZHAO;DANSHIZUOWEIBIYU,HOULAIFOJIAJINGCHANGSHIYONG。FOXINGDESHIZAIXINGBENSHENJIUSHIXIANXIANGSHIJIE,ZHENGRUJINQIDEBENSHENJIUSHIJINZI。XIANXIANGSHIJIEZHIWAIBIEWUSHIZAIXING,ZHENGRUJINQIZHIWAIBIEWUJINZI。YOUXIEREN,YOUYU"WUMING",ZHIJIANXIANXIANGSHIJIE,BUJIANFOXINGDESHIZAIXING。LINGYOUXIEREN,YOUYUJUEWU,JIANDAOFOXING,DANSHIZHEIGEFOXINGRENGRANSHIXIANXIANGSHIJIE。ZHEILIANGZHONGRENSUOJIANDEDOUSHITONGYIGEDONGXI,DANSHIJUEWUDERENSUOJIANDE,YUWUMINGDERENSUOJIANDE,JUYOUWANQUANBUTONGDEYIYI。ZHEIJIUSHIZHONGGUOFOXUECHANGSHUODE:"MIZEWEIFAN,WUZEWEISHENG。"

                             DAOSHENGDELILUNZHONG,HAIYOU"YICHANTIREN(JIFANDUIFOJIAOZHE)JIEDECHENGFO"YI。ZHEIBENSHIYIQIEYOUQINGJIEYOUFOXINGDELUOJIJIELUN。DANSHIZHEIYUDANGSHISUOJIANDE《NIEPANJING》ZHIJIECHONGTU,YOUYUDAOSHENGTICHUCIYI,JIUJIANGTAGANCHUSHOUDOUNANJING。RUOGANNIANHOU,DANGDABEN《NIEPANJING》YICHUHOU,QIZHONGYOUYIDUANZHENGSHILEDAOSHENGCIYI。HUIJIAO(554NIANZU)ZAIDAOSHENGDECHUANJIZHONGXIEDAO;"SHIRENYISHENGTUICHANTIDEFO,CIYUYOUJU;DUNWU、BUSHOUBAODENG,SHIYIXIANZHANG。"(《GAOSENGCHUAN》JUANQI)

                             HUIJIAOHAIGAOSUWOMEN,DAOSHENGCENGSHUO;"FUXIANGYIJINYI,DEYIZEXIANGWANG;YANYIQUANLI,RULIZEYANXI。......RUOWANGQUANQUYU,SHIKEYUYANDAOYI。"(TONGSHANG)ZHEIYEJIUSHI《ZHUANGZI》SHUODE:"QUANZHESUOYIZAIYU,DEYUERWANGQUAN;TIZHESUOYIZAITU,DETUERWANGTI。"(《ZHUANGZI·WAIWU》)ZHONGGUOZHEXUEDECHUANTONG,BAYONGCIJIAOZUO"YANQUAN"。ANZHAOZHEIGECHUANTONG,ZUIHAODEYANSHUOSHI"BULUOYANQUAN"DEYANSHUO。

                          快乐牛牛   WOMENYIJINGZHIDAO,ZAIJIZANG"ERDIYI"ZHONG,DAOLEDISANCENGCI,JIANZHIWUKEYANSHUO。ZAIDISANCENGCI,YEJIUMEIYOULUORUYANQUANDEWEIXIAN。KESHIDAOSHENGSHUODAOFOXINGSHI,TAJIHULUORUYANQUAN,YINWEITABATASHUOCHENGLE"XIN",TAJIRENYIZHONGYINXIANG:DINGYIDEXIANZHIHAIKEYIJIAZHIYUTA。ZAIZHEIFANGMIAN,TASHISHOULE《NIEPANJING》DEYINGXIANG,《NIEPANJING》HENQIANGDIAOFOXING,SUOYITAJIEJINXINGZONG("YUZHOUDEXIN"ZONG)。

                             YOUCIKEJIAN,ZAIDAOSHENGSHIDAI,YIJINGWEISHANZONGZUOLELILUNBEIJINGDEZHUNBEI,ZAIXIAYIZHANGBIANZHIQIXIANG。KESHISHANZONGDEDASHIMEN,RENGRANXUYAOZAIZHEIGEBEIJINGSHANG,BABENZHANGSUOJIANGDEGEXIANGLILUN,NARUTAMENDEGAOFUDIAOZHIZHONG。

                          快乐牛牛   ZAIYISHANGSUOSHUODELILUNZHONG,YEKEYIFAXIANJIBAINIANHOUDEXINRUJIADEMENGYA。DAOSHENGDERENJIEKEYICHENGFODELILUN,SHIWOMENXIANGQIMENGZISUOSHUODE"RENJIEKEYIWEIYAOSHUN"(《MENGZI·GAOZIXIA》)。MENGZIYESHUO:"JINQIXINZHE,ZHIQIXINGYE。ZHIQIXING,ZEZHITIANYI。"(《MENGZI·JINXINSHANG》)DANSHIMENGZISUOSHUODE"XIN"、"XING",DOUSHIXINLIDE,BUSHIXINGSHANGXUEDE。YANZHEDAOSHENGDELILUNSUOTISHIDELUXIAN,JIYUXIN、XINGYIXINGSHANGXUEDEJIESHI,JIUDADAOLEXINRUJIA。

                          快乐牛牛   "YUZHOUDEXIN"DEGUANNIAN,SHIYINDUDUIZHONGGUOZHEXUEDEGONGXIAN。FOJIAOCHUANRUYIQIAN,ZHONGGUOZHEXUEZHONGZHIYOU"XIN",MEIYOU"YUZHOUDEXIN"。DAOJIADE"DAO",SUIRULAOZISUOSHUO,SHI"XUANZHIYOUXUAN",KESHIHAIBUSHI"YUZHOUDEXIN"。ZAIBENZHANGSUOJIANGDESHIQIYIHOU,ZAIZHONGGUOZHEXUEZHONG,BUJINYOU"XIN",ERQIEYOU"YUZHOUDEXIN"。


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