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                      • 生态中国网 >  新闻 >  正文

                        京津冀及周边地区再现重污染 五位专家解答污染成因

                        来源: 时间:2020/2/12 15:43:41快乐牛牛

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                        JINNIANCHUNJIEYILAI,JINGJINJIJIZHOUBIANDIQUDUOCICHUXIANZHONGWURANTIANQIGUOCHENG,ZHONGGUOGONGCHENGYUANYUANSHIHEKEBINHEYOUGUANZHUANJIAJIUWANGYOUGUANXINDEZHONGWURANCHENGYINHEBIANHUAQUSHIDENGWENTIJINXINGLEJIEDU。

                        问题一:春节以来,假期又逢疫情,社会活动水平很低,为什么还有重污染?

                        中科院大气物理所研究员王自发:大气污染程度和排放有关,也和大气环境容量有关。大气环境容量是一个城市、一个区域空气质量达标时,最大能容纳各种大气污染物的排放量,其大小会因气候、气象条件等因素影响而动态变化,气象条件好的时候环境容量大,气象条件差的时候环境容量小。就平均水平而言,京津冀及周边地区“2+26”城市秋冬季大气污染排放量大大超出环境容量,在极端不利气象条件下,甚至能超出环境容量4倍,这种情况持续时间长,就会导致出现重度或严重污染。

                        快乐牛牛JINNIANCHUNJIEYILAI,SHOUJIAQIHEYIQINGYINGXIANG,SHEHUIHUODONGSHUIPINGYOUSUOXIAJIANG,“2+26”CHENGSHIPM2.5、SO2、NOx、VOCsDENGZHUYAOWURANWUPAIFANGLIANGJIAOQIUDONGJIPINGJUNSHUIPINGXIAJIANGYUE20-30%。DANTONGSHI,QUYUNEIPINFANCHUXIANZHANGSHIJIANJINGWEN、QIANGNIWEN、GAOSHIDEBULIQIXIANGTIAOJIAN,PINGJUNFENGSUZHENGTIDIYU2MI/MIAO,XIANGDUISHIDUGAOYU60%,NIWENGAODA10DU(NIWENSHIYINGXIANGWURANWUKUOSANDEGUANJIANYINSUZHIYI,ZHENGCHANGQINGKUANGXIA,HAIBAGAODUYUEGAO,WENDUYUEDI,KONGQIZINUANXIANGLENGLIUDONG,YOUZHUYUWURANWUCHUIZHIKUOSAN。DANZAIFASHENGNIWENSHI,QINGKUANGGANGHAOXIANGFAN,GAOKONGWENDUBIDIMIANGAO,KONGQICHUIZHISHANGSHENGSHOUZU,JIUXIANGGUOGAIYIYANGGAIZAIQUYUSHANGKONG,WURANWUNANYIKUOSAN。10DUNIWENSHUYUQIANGNIWEN。),BIANJIECENGGAODUJIANGDIDAO300-500MI(SHIZHENGCHANGQINGKUANGXIADE1/2ZHI1/3),JINGJINJIZHONGBU、HENANZHONGBU、SHANDONGXIBUDENGDIDUOCICHUXIANDAWUTIANQI,ZHEIDAOZHIQUYUDAQIHUANJINGRONGLIANGBIPINGSHIJIANSHAOYUE50%,TAIXINGSHANQIANDECHENGSHIHUANJINGRONGLIANGBIANDEGENGDI。YEJIUSHISHUO,WURANPAIFANGLIANGXIAJIANGLE,DANXIAJIANGFUDUYUANWEIDADAOHUANJINGRONGLIANG。DAQIGUANCEHEYANJIUCHUBUPINGGUJIEGUOSHIJINQIBULIQIXIANGTIAOJIANDAOZHIHUANJINGRONGLIANGDAFUDUJIANXIAO,SUIRANSHEHUIHUODONGSHUIPINGCHUYUJIAODISHUIPING,DANDAQIWURANWUPAIFANGDELIANGRENGRANCHAOGUOHUANJINGRONGLIANG2BEIYISHANG,ZHEISHIJINQIZAIXIANZHONGWURANDEZHUYAOYUANYIN。

                        快乐牛牛CONGJIN10NIANDEQIXIANGGUANCESHUJUFENXI,JINGJINJIJIZHOUBIAN“2+26”CHENGSHICHUYUXIANGTONGDEDAQILIUCHANGZHONG,YOUSHIZHEIXIECHENGSHITONGBUCHUYUBULIDEQIXIANGTIAOJIANXIA,DAQIHUANJINGRONGLIANGZHENGTIBIANDI。YOUSHIFASHENGZAIJUBU,RUHENANBEIBUCHENGSHI、HEBEITAIXINGSHANQIANCHENGSHI、BEIJINGHETIANJINZHOUBIANCHENGSHIDENG,QIXIANGSHANGJIAO“QIXIANGFUHE”,JIGEGECHENGSHIPAIFANGDEDAQIWURANWUXIANGFUHEZHONGXINJIJU。ZAIDANGQIANGEGECHENGSHIPAIFANGSHUIPINGDOUCHAOHUANJINGRONGLIANGDEQINGKUANGXIA,NALIFASHENGQIXIANGFUHE,NALIJIUCHENGWEIWURANWUJIJUQU,DAOZHIGAIQUYUCHUXIANZHONGWURAN。

                        JINNIANCHUNJIEQIJIAN,BEIJINGHETIANJINDENGZHOUBIANCHENGSHIJIUFASHENGLEQIXIANGFUHE,CHUXIANLEZHONGWURAN,SUOYIZHEILIDEQUNZHONGGANJUEDAOWOMENZHEILIJIHUSHENMEDOUTINGLEZENMEHAIYOUZHONGWURAN。ERHENAN、SHANDONGDENGSHENGFENDECHENGSHIKONGQIZHILIANGQUECHIXUYOULIANG,NEILIDEQUNZHONGGANJUEDAOQIYE、QICHE、JIANZHUGONGDITINGXIALAI,HAIZHENJIUMEIYOUWURANLE。CONGQIXIANGYUCEKAN,CONGDANGQIANDAO2YUE13RI,ZHEICIQIXIANGFUHEYOUFASHENGZAIBEIJING、TIANJINJIZHOUBIAN,MUQIANCIJINGJINJIDIQUZHIYOU5GECHENGSHICHUXIANZHONGWURAN,QITACHENGSHIJUNBAOCHIYOULIANGHUOQINGZHONGDUWURAN。

                        问题二:车停了,工地停了,企业停了,还有什么排放,怎么还超环境容量?

                        交通运输部规划研究院环境所所长徐洪磊:从我掌握的情况看,京津冀及周边地区交通流量确实大幅下降。交通量观测数据显示,春节期间,京津冀及周边地区,公路货车和客车流量较平时分别下降了77%和39%。而且受疫情影响,春节假期后,区域交通流量仍维持相对较低水平,没有出现2019年春节假期后交通流量恢复至正常水平的现象。粗略估算,区域内交通运输产生的污染排放量至少下降4成以上。从生态环境部监测站点数据分析,京津冀及周边“2+26”城市自春节到正月十五日,NO2浓度同比下降30%左右。但2月10日和11日,随着复工复产,城市内和城际间的交通流量又开始有明显增加,NO2浓度同前段时间相比明显上升,北京市PM2.5组分监测显示硝酸盐占比大幅上升,成为抬升PM2.5浓度的主要因子。这些说明,机动车排放的NOx仍是区域大气污染的主要成因之一,这也得到了观测数据的科学验证。虽然每次雾霾的主要成因和各排放源贡献占比会有不同,但就区域大气污染成因而言,不能因为车流量的减少就认定其排放的污染物与雾霾没有关系。

                        中国工程院院士、清华大学环境学院院长贺克斌:确实,施工工地大部分都停工了,车流量大幅下降,餐饮服务业、劳动密集型轻工业等行业也大部分停工,这类企业污染排放大幅度降低。这些从监测数据上也能体现出来。2020年除夕至正月十五,区域PM10平均浓度较2019年春节同期下降13.3%,NO2下降22.6%。

                        SHOUYIQINGGUANKONGYINGXIANG,HENDUOXINGYEDEPAIFANGLIANGYOUJIAODAFUDUDEXIAJIANG,ZHEIDUIWOMENKEXUEGONGZUOZHEERYAN,YESHIYICIZHONGWURANTIANQIFASHENGDEANLIYANJIU,DUIYIHOUZHONGWURANYINGDUIJINGZHUNSHICEDEJIANYAN,GUANKONGSHENMEYOUYONG,GUANKONGSHENMEWUYONGDESHIZHENG。YOUYUWOGUOBEIFANGDONGJIQUNUANHEQUYUZHONGWURANXINGYEXIANGDUIJIZHONG,PAIFANGFANGMIANDAJIAYOUYIXIEMEIZHUYIDAODEQINGKUANG。XIANSHUOCAINUAN,YOUYUDALIANGWUGONGRENYUANHUIXIANG,JUMINCAINUANXUQIUZENGZHANG,SUIRANBUFENNONGCUNYIJINGWANCHENGLEMEIGAIQIMEIGAIDIAN,DANHAIYOU1000DUOWANHUYONGMEIQUNUAN,YIDUNSANMEIRANSHAOPAIFANGDEWURANWUXIANGDANGYUDIANCHANGRANMEIPAIFANGWURANWUDE15BEIYISHANG。JINNIANCHUNJIEDAORIQIANYUQUNIANTONGSHIDUANXIANGBI,NONGCUNDIQUHENGLIANGRANMEILIANGDECONONGDUZENGJIALE10%YISHANG。SHUOMINGNONGCUNSANMEIYONGLIANGJIAOCHUNJIEQIANYOUSUOZENGJIA。ZAISHUOGONGYE,MUQIANTINGGONGDEZHUYAOJIZHONGZAIJIAGONGYE、QINGGONGYE,ERGONGYEDAQIWURANWUPAIFANGDEZHUYAOLAIYUAN,ZHUYAOSHIGAOWURAN、GAONENGHAODEZIYUANXINGXINGYE,BIRUHUOLIFADIAN、GANGTIE、JIAOHUA、BOLI、NAIHUOCAILIAO、SHIHUAHUAGONG、YANGHUALV、DIANJIELVDENG,ZHEIXIEXINGYEWANGWANGCUNZAIBUKEZHONGDUANDESHENGCHANGONGXU,XUYAOCHANGNIANYUNZHUAN。

                        快乐牛牛CONGZHUYAOGONGYECHANPINCHANLIANGLAIKAN,JINNIANCHUNJIEQIJIAN,QUANGUOGANGTIECHANLIANGJIAOCHUNJIEQIANXIAOFUXIAJIANG,RIJUNTIESHUICHANLIANGJIANGFU2%ZUOYOU,DANZONGTICHANLIANGRENGGAOYUQUNIANTONGQI0.6%,BEIFANGDIQUCHUGEBIEQIYEYINSUOZAICUNZHUANGFAXIANYIQINGTINGCHANWAI,QIYUQIYEJIANCHANFUDUBUDA,XIANGGUANXINGYEXIEHUIDESHUJUXIANSHI,HEBEISHENGGANGTIEQIYEGAOLUKAIGONGLVLVEGAOYUQUNIAN;YOUSEJINSHUXINGYECHANLIANGJIAONIANQIANYOUXIAOFUBODONG,ZONGTIJIBENWUBIANHUA;DIANXINGDAXINGQIYEDEDIANJIELV、YANGHUALVRIJUNCHANLIANGJIAOPINGSHIBIANHUAFUDUZAI±3%YINEI,DIANJIEQIAN、XINDINGHEYINJITONGRIJUNCHANLIANGXIAJIANGFUDUJINWEI2%,TANSUCHANLIANGJIANGFUZAI9%YINEI;PINGBANBOLIHEJIAOTANCHANLIANG、YUANYOUJIAGONGLIANGBAOCHIPINGWEN。CONGWURANWUZAIXIANJIANCESHUJUKAN,CHUYIDAOSHIWUQIJIAN,HUOLIHEGANGTIEXINGYEWURANWUPAIFANGLIANGJIAOJIEQIANXIAJIANGYUE10%ZUOYOU,JIAOHUA、SHIHUA、BOLI、YOUSEDENGXINGYEWUMINGXIANBIANHUAQUSHI。

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