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          2. 生态中国网 >  新闻 >  正文

            医废处理:战“疫”背后的另一场硬仗

            来源:中国环境报 时间:2020/2/12 15:54:40

            字号

            JIEZHI2YUE10RI12SHI,XINGUANFEIYANQUEZHENBINGLIYICHAOGUO40000LI。ZAIJUQUANGUOZHILIYUXINGUANBINGDUKANGZHENGZHIJI,SHENGTAIHUANJINGXITONGZHENGQUANLIZHULAOLINGYIDAOFANGXIAN——JIAQIANGJIANGUAN,QUEBAOYIXIANCHANSHENGDEDALIANGYILIAOFEIWU(YIXIAJIANCHENG“YIFEI”)DEDAOJISHI、YOUXU、GAOXIAO、WUHAIHUACHULICHUZHI。

            NEIME,ZI“FEIDIAN”YILAI,WOGUOYIFEICHULITIXIRUHECONGZHUOJINJIANZHOUDAORIZHENWANSHAN,XIANYOUYIFEICHULINENGLINENGFOUBAOZHANGYINGJIZHUANGTAIXIAJINGPENDEYIFEICHANSHENGLIANG,WEILAIHAIYOUNAXIEJIDAIWANSHANZHICHU,BENBAOJIZHEWEICICAIFANGLEDUOWEIXINGYE、JIGOUZHUANJIAHEZISHENRENSHI。

            “2003年抗击‘非典’时,我是一名普通技术员。当时正处于建厂初期,在人力不足、生产设备自动控制能力较弱的情况下,我们顶着压力,接收‘非典’期间产生的医废,及时完成了处置任务。”17年后再次面对疫情肆虐,已经担任安徽省浩悦环境科技有限责任公司董事、副总经理的乐勇颇为从容地说,“这次新冠病毒来袭,我们在合肥市首例确诊感染病例出现前,就迅速启动了应急预案,为有效防控疫情构筑起一道卫生安全防线。”

            快乐牛牛LEYONGDEXINXINZAISUIHOUDECAIFANGZHONGDEDAOYINZHENG。CICIYIFEICHULICHUZHI“XIANGYINGGENGKUAI、BUSHUGENGZHOUMI、CHULIGENGJISHI”SHICAIFANGZHONGZHUANJIAMENDEYIZHIKANFA,ERZHEIYAOCONG17NIANQIANKAISHISHUOQI。

            2003NIANSHIWOGUOYIFEICHULIJINRUGUIFANHUAGUANLIDEYIDAOFENSHUILING

            “火烧眉毛”是时任原国家环保总局污控司固体处处长赵维钧用来形容2003年4月-5月间各地抢建医废焚烧装置情景的词语。

             以北京为例,当时全市7000多家医疗机构,每天产生的医废比平时激增,却没有医废集中处理设施,人们对医废的恐慌心理也比较严重,医废处置战线比较被动。

            “医废要是流出医院就是人命关天的大事,一般炉子烧不了,”赵维钧说。于是原国家环保总局和北京市固废管理中心一边紧急调运船用垃圾焚烧炉,一边加快购置密闭转运车,新建焚烧点,每天增加医废处理能力100吨,全市医废才得到有序管理和处置。

            2003NIANCHUNTIANZHENGFENDUOMIAODEYIFEICHULIZHANRANGRENXINYOUYUJI,DANTONGSHIYESHIWOGUOYIFEIJINRUGUIFANHUAGUANLIDEYIDAOFENSHUILING。

            SHANGSHIJI90NIANDAIYIQIAN,WOGUOBINGMEIYOUYIFEIDANDUFENLEICHUZHIDEYAOQIU。1998NIAN,YIFEIKAISHINARUWEIXIANFEIWUGUANLI。2003NIAN“FEIDIAN”YIHOU,YIFEIGUANLIGUIFANHUABUFAJINYIBUJIAKUAI。JIZHESHULIFAXIAN,2003NIAN6YUE、8YUE、10YUE,XIANGJICHUTAILE《YILIAOFEIWUGUANLITIAOLI》《YILIAOWEISHENGJIGOUYILIAOFEIWUGUANLIBANFA》《YILIAOFEIWUFENLEIMULU》。

            “每隔两月便有一部相关规章制度诞生,速度不可谓不快,其中穿插推出的各种相关技术规范,则在一些细节上进一步填补了这一领域的空白。”生态环境部环境科学研究院固体废物污染控制技术研究所所长王琪说。

            不仅如此,“在随后的2006年、2008年、2009年、2010年、2017年,我国又增加了《医疗废物化学消毒处理工程技术规范》《医疗废物专用包装袋、容器和警示标志标准》《危险废物集中焚烧处置设施运行监督管理技术规范》《关于在医疗机构推进生活垃圾分类管理的通知》等相关要求,进一步完善了医废处理监管制度体系。”王琪补充道。

            “此次疫情中,在确定病毒‘人传人’后可能引发的众多未知下,生态环境部门反应迅速。1月21日,生态环境部印发《关于做好新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情医疗废物环境管理工作的通知》。一周后,又印发《新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情医疗废物应急处置管理技术指南(试行)》,及时提供了医废处置战线的‘作战手册’。” 曾为多家医废处置企业做过环评的国家城市环境污染控制技术研究中心研究员彭应登表示,医废处置战线的冲锋号已经吹响,各地纷纷行动,对医疗废物收集、转运、处置加强全流程监控。

            CHUGEBIECHENGSHIWAI,JIBENMEIGEDIJISHI(ZHOU、MENG)DOUZHISHAOYOUYIGEYILIAOFEIWUCHUZHIJIGOU

            放眼各地的行动前,我们可以先翻开生态环境部2019年12月发布的《2019年全国大、中城市固体废物污染环境防治年报》,从中可以一窥各地的医废处置能力。

            2018NIAN,200GEDAZHONGCHENGSHIYIFEICHANSHENGLIANGWEI81.7WANDUN,CHUZHILIANGWEI81.6WANDUN。JIEZHI2018NIAN,QUANGUOGESHENG(QU、SHI)GONGBANFA407FENWEIXIANFEIWUJINGYINGXUKEZHENG。CHUGEBIECHENGSHIZHIWAI,JIBENMEIGEDIJISHI(ZHOU、MENG)DOUZHISHAOYOUYIGEYILIAOFEIWUCHUZHIJIGOU。

            快乐牛牛“2003NIANYILAI,GUOJIATOURUJINBAIYIYUANJIANSHEYIFEICHULISHESHI,WEIXINGUANFEIYANYIQINGXIADEYIFEICHULICHUZHIDAXIALEJICHU。‘HUOSHAOMEIMAO’DECHANGJINGYIBUDAKENENGZHONGXIAN,XIANZAIGENGDUODESHI‘CHENWENYINGDUI’。”PENGYINGDENGRENWEI。

            YUSHI,WOMENKANDAOYUNZHUANJIZHIZHENGZAIYI“RISHOURIQING”WEIMUBIAO,QUANLIZHULAOYIFEICHULICHUZHIANQUANPINGZHANG。

            1YUE20RIZHI2YUE5RI,SHANXISHENGLEIJIANQUANCHUZHIYILIAOFEIWU1131.92DUN,QIZHONGGEDINGDIANYILIAOJIGOUCHANSHENGDESUOYOUYIQINGYILIAOFEIWUZUODAODANGRISHOUJI、DANGRIZHUANYUN、DANGRICHUZHI,GONGJI59.45DUN。

            HUNANSHENGZHANGSHASHIYILIAOFEIWUCHULIJILIZUODAO“LINGSHICHA”,2YUE2RI0SHIZHI24SHI,YILIAOFEIWUJIZHONGCHUZHILIANGWEI22.42DUN,CHUZHISHESHIYUNXINGFUHELVWEI56.1%。

            SICHUANSHENGCHENGDOUSHIZHUANXIANCHUZHI、ZHUANRENFUZE、ZHUANXIANGTAIZHANG、ZHUANRENJIAOJIE、ZHUANRENZHUCHANG5GEHUANJIEYANMIJIANKONG。1YUE22RIZHI2YUE6RI,GONGJIESHOUYIYUANCHANSHENGDERICHANGYILIAOFEIWU744DUN,SHOUJISHEYIYILIAOFEIWU8.6DUN,QUANBUZUODAORICHANRIQING。

            LIAONINGSHENGSHENYANGSHIJIANLIQUANSHI4842JIAYILIAOJIGOUTAIZHANG,SHULIYILIAOFEIWUSHOUYUNCHUZHILIANTIAOGEHUANJIEFENGXIANDIAN,YANGESHIXINGYILIAOFEIWUZHUANDIANCHUCUN、ZHUANXIANYUNSHUDENGCUOSHI。1YUE23RIZHI2YUE4RI,SHENYANGSHIYILIAOFEIWULEIJISHOUYUNLIANGDA251.6DUN,QUANBUJINXINGWUHAIHUACHUZHI。

            快乐牛牛    ……

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            快乐牛牛YINGJIZHUANGTAIXIAJIZENGDEYIFEILIANGRENGSHIYINGGUTOU

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            快乐牛牛TONGGUOJIANGGESHENG(QU、SHI)2018NIANZHENLIAORENCI、RUYUANRENSHU、PINGJUNZHUYUANRISHUJUYUNIANBAOZHONGMEINIANSHIJICHUZHIDEYIFEILIANGXIANGDUIBI,KEYIFAXIAN,SUIRANDADUOSHUSHENG(QU、SHI)DOUYOUYIFEICHULIJIGOU,DANCHUBEIJING、SHANGHAIYIWAI,QITASHENG(QU、SHI)JIBENDOUCUNZAIYIFEICHUZHINENGLIBUZUDEWENTI,HUBEIDEQINGKUANGYEBURONGLEGUAN。ZAIYINGJIZHUANGTAIXIA,GEDIYIFEIZHENGCHUXIANBAOFAXINGZENGZHANG,CHUZHINENGLIDEBUZUZESHIXINGSHIGENGWEIYANJUN。

            GENJUWUHANSHISHENGTAIHUANJINGJUGONGBUDE《WUHANSHI2018NIANGUTIFEIWUWURANHUANJINGFANGZHIXINXIGONGGAO》,WUHANQUANSHI2018NIANYIFEICHANSHENGLIANG1.73WANDUN,QUANBUYUNSONGZHIWUHANHANSHIHUANBAOGONGCHENGYOUXIANGONGSIXIASHUDEYILIAOFEIWUFENSHAOCHUZHIZHONGXINCHULI,ZHEIYESHIWUHANSHIWEIYIYIJIAJUBEICHULIYIFEIZIZHIDEDANWEI,CHULIGUIMOWEI1.8WANDUN/NIAN。

            ZHENGCHANGQINGKUANGXIAJIBENYICHUYUMANFUHEZHUANGTAIDEWUHAN,ZAIXINGUANFEIYANSINVEXIANENGFOUWANCHENGYURIJUZENGDEYINGJICHULIRENWU?

            YIWEIZHIYUANQIANXIANYIYUANDENEIBURENSHIGAOSUJIZHE:“YIKAISHIDEQUEYOUXIEBUZU,YIWURENYUANZAIZHILIAOYIXIANYIJINGPIYUBENMING,ERYIYUANFUZEYIFEIFENLEISHOUJIDEYOUDUOWEILINSHIGONG,YIDANRANBINGQUEZHEN,ZHEIGEWEIZHIMEIRENGUDESHANG,YIFEIZHINENGZANSHIXIANDUIZAIYUANZILI。HOUXUGEZHONGNENGLI、ANPAIGENSHANGLAIZHIHOU,ZHEIZHONGZHUANGKUANGZHENGZAIHAOZHUAN。DANLINGYIGEWENTIJIEZHONGERZHI,BINGRENYIXIAZIQUANBUYONGJINYIYUAN,YIFEICHANSHENGLIANGDEZENGZHANGSHIPINGRISHUBEI。JIUYIJIANFANGHUFULAISHUO,SHOUJISHIJIUYAOZHUANGYIGESULIAODAI,YOUBUNENGYADETAILIHAI,YIFANGZHIQIRONGJIAODEERCIWURAN。ZHEIJIUJIYIFEICHUZHIDANWEIDECHUZHINENGLITICHULEHENGAODEYAOQIU。”

            WUHANHANSHIHUANBAOGONGCHENGYOUXIANGONGSIFUZERENYANGFANYETANYAN:“YIFEIZHONGLIANGXIAO,DANTIJIDA,YOUYAOYANMIBAOZHUANG,SUIZHESHOUJILIANGDADAZENGJIA,YUNSHUZHUANGZHIHUICHUXIANBUZU。”

            医废处理处置作为抵抗疫情的最后一公里,一方面是趋紧的运力和处置能力,一方面是必须要守住防线,丝毫不松懈。矛盾如何解决?

            医废处理处置应急演练需提上日程

            “‘一盘棋’思维和应急状态下的灵活调动机制要发挥作用。”彭应登说。根据生态环境部下发的技术指南,各地可因地制宜,在确保处置效果的前提下,可以选择移动式医废处置设施、危险废物焚烧设施、生活垃圾焚烧设施、工业窑炉等设施,应急处置新冠肺炎疫情医废,试行定点管理。此外,也可以按照应急处置跨区域协同机制,将新冠肺炎疫情医废转运至临近地区的医废集中处置设施进行处置。

            “在日常状态下不允许跨市处理的医废,特殊时期相关地市不能羞于求援,在本地无法解决时一定要第一时间向相关部门提出申请,避免因处理不当造成疫情二次蔓延。”彭应登说。

            WEICI,HUBEISHENGYIZAIXIANGYANGSHIDIAOPEIJUBEIZIZHIDEYUNSHUCHEHERENYUANJINJICHIYUANWUHAN,TONGSHIGAIZAOSHENGJILEYIPICHANGFANGHESHESHI,ZUOWEIYINGJICHUZHIDANWEI,QUEBAOSUISHIKEQIDONG。TONGSHI,ZAIHUOSHENSHANYIYUANHELEISHENSHANYIYUANCHOUJIANCHULISHESHI,XINGCHENG24DUN/RIYILIAOFEIWUCHUZHINENGLI。ZAIQITADINGDIANYIYUANCHOUJIANCHULISHESHI,XINGCHENG10.9DUN/RIZICHUZHINENGLI。QIDONGHOUBEIYINGJICHUZHINENGLI22DUN/RI,CHUBUXINGCHENGXINZENG56.9DUN/RIDEYILIAOFEIWUCHUZHINENGLI。

             从2月5日开始新冠肺炎累计确诊病例数超过黄冈,且仅次于武汉的孝感市,同样压力重重。与确诊病例同时上升的,还有医废产生量。“随着疫情暴发,医废呈井喷式增长,处置设备已经24小时超负荷运转。”中国节能孝感市中环环境治理有限公司总经理李华表示,医废处理量以往是每天七八吨,现已增至10吨-12吨。

            ZHONGYAXIAGENGYAOYUBINGDU“QIANG”SHIJIAN。2YUE3RI,TIANJINSHISHENGTAIHUANJINGKEXUEYANJIUYUANJIEDAOLEXIAOGANSHIQINGQIUZHIYUANYIFEICHUZHIDEHAN。TIANJINSHIHUANKEYUANMAJIANLIBOSHIJIESHOUJIZHECAIFANGSHISHUO:“‘FEIDIAN’YIHOU,WOMENYANFADEYIDONGSHIYIFEICHUZHISHEBEIHUODELE10XIANGZHUANLI。ZAISHENGTAIHUANJINGBUDEXIEDIAOXIA,WOMENZUIJINDUIXIAOGANJINXINGLEWUCHANGYUANZHU。LINGDAOGAODUZHONGSHI,QUANYUANCHONGFENPEIHE。YOUYUDANGSHIHAIZAICHUNJIEQIJIAN,CAILIAOCAIGOU、ANZHUANGDOUXUYAOKEFUHENDUOKUNNAN,DAJIAWEICILIANXUFENZHANLE6GEZHOUYE,TONGSHILIANXIYINGJIGUANLIBUHEJIAOTONGYUNSHUBUZUOHAODAOLUYUNSHUBAOZHANG,ZHONGYUZAI2YUE8RIXIAWU5DIANYUNDIXIAOGAN,YICIDIANHUOCHENGGONG,BANGZHUXIAOGANHUANJIEYIFEICHULIDEYALI。”

             社会各界的大力支援,一定程度上可以缓解医废处理能力短缺局面。“但在这个过程中,需要尤其注意的是,把好处理设施的准入门槛。”王琪强调。

            “不少地区曾有为逃避缴纳费用而将医废混入生活垃圾或将医废倒卖等问题,导致医废处理机构设计规模并不高。也就是说,目前一些地区的处理能力可能并不能满足激增的医废产量。”一位行业内部人士透露。

            快乐牛牛SHOUZHUFANGXIANHAIYUANYUANBUSHIZHONGDIAN。ZHEIWEIRENSHIBIAOSHI:“WOGUOXIANZAIYIFEICHULICHUZHINENGLIHESHIJINIANQIANXIANGBIYOULEDAFUTISHENG,DANZAIYIFEICHULICHUZHIYINGJIYANLIANFANGMIANRENGSHIKONGBAI,YILIAOJIGOUNEIBUDEYINGJIYUANHERENSHIFENPEIYINGZUODEGENGJIACHONGFENHELI。ZAIBAOZHENGGEDISHIYIFEICHUZHIJIGOUCONGWUDAOYOUDEJICHUSHANG,RUHECONGYOUDAOHAO,ZAIXIANGMUJIANSHESHANGJIAKUAIBUDUANBAN,BINGJINXINGJISHIZHENGDUN,XUYAOGENGQUANMIANDIZONGJIEHEFANSI。”(JIZHE WANGSHAN)


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